Daiichi Sankyo
In 2012, Daiichi Sankyo reported revenue of 9 Billion. They are an international pharmaceutical company and are the second largest pharmaceutical company in Japan. The company is currently ranked number 17 in world sales. They hold the German biotechnology company U3, the American biotechnology company Plexxikon, and have a 35 percent stake in Ranbaxy Laboratories (a majority share). Daiichi focuses on prescription drug manufacturing and research and development. One of their key drugs is effient. Daiichi Sankyo was founded in 2005 (by merger of Sankyo Co and Daiichi Pharmaceutical).
Sanofi-Aventis
In 2011, Sanofi-Aventis reported revenue of 47.5 billion dollars. A few of their key products include Ambien, Plavix and Renagel, as well as vaccines Fluzone and Menactra. They focus on products for cardiovascular disease, the central nervous system, internal medicine, oncology, ophthalmology, and vaccines (subsidiary Sanofi Pasteur makes vaccines while its Genzyme unit makes biopharmaceuticals). They are a French company, which operates out of over 100 countries, and were founded in 2004 (by a merger of Aventis and Sanofi-Synthelabo).
Shire Pharmaceuticals
In 2012, Shire reported revenue of 5 million. The company focuses on behavioral health, regenerative medicine, rare diseases, and gastrointestinal conditions. Shire was founded in 1986. Its first major products were calcium supplements for the treatment of osteoporosis. Since then, it has acquired several companies such as Biochem Canada and Pharavene. Its major products include Vyvanse and Adderall XR but it also makes an important HIV medication.
Boehringer Ingelheim
In 2012, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals reported revenue of 18.8 Billion. The company's main fields of focus are cardiovascular disease, hepatitis, Parkinson's disease, respiratory disease, HIV, oncology, cerebrovascular disease, and diabetes. Some of their key products include Phenylephrine, Epinephrine, and Ketoprofen. They were founded in 1885 when Boehringer was established as a tartaric acid plant and supplied materials for dyeing and cooking purposes. In 1893, with the discovery of chemical synthesis of lactic acid, the company merged as a major biotech firm and expanded exponentially. Various drugs were then launched up until the end of the Second World War, many utilizing lactic and tartaric acid for use in the food industry. By the 1950’s, the company transitioned from its previous base to treatments of respiratory, cardiovascular, and gastrointestinal diseases. During this time Boehringer also established a number of new plants, notably a subsidiary one in Vienna.
Pfizer
In 2012, Pfizer reported revenue of 59 billion. They are currently the world's largest research-based biopharmaceutical company. They focus on immunology, inflammation, oncology, cardiovascular, metabolic diseases, neuroscience, pain, and vaccines. Some key Pfizer products include Aspirin, Lipitor, Lyrica, Zithromax, and Celebra. Pfizer is an American company and was founded in 1849. In 1950, Pfizer's discovery of Terramycin (oxytetracycline) marked a trend for Pfizer as it became increasingly a research oriented pharmaceutical company and, in 2006, Pfizer sold its consumer healthcare unit to Johnson and Johnson.
Bristol-Myers Squibb
In 2012, Bristol-Myers Squibb reported revenue of 17.6 billion. The company manufactures prescription pharmaceuticals in several areas including, HIV/AIDS, cardiovascular disease, cancer, hepatitis, and diabetes. A few key products include Abilify, Yervoy, and Sustiva. Edward Robinson Squibb founded Bristol-Myers, a United States based company, in 1858. In 1938, Bristol-Meyers (mainly a consumer product manufacturer) and the Squibb institute (mainly concerned with pharmaceuticals) separated. Squibb then became one of the largest manufacturers of Penicillin by 1940. In the 1960’s and 1970’s, Bristol-Myers-Squibb expanded into cancer and oncological research. In 1989, Bristol Meyers merged back with Squibb to become the second largest pharmaceutical company in the world. Recently, Bristol-Myers Squibb launched a 100 million dollar “secure the future fund” to commit to HIV/AIDS research in African communities.
Viiv Healthcare
In 2011, Viiv manufactured 10 major medicines and made a profit of more than two billion. They are an independent company, which focuses on HIV medication. Viiv is based out of the UK with headquarters in North America (United States, Puerto Rico, Canada, Mexico), Europe (Belgium, France, Germany, Italy, Netherlands, Switzerland) as well as Japan, Russia, and Singapore. A few of their key products include Combivir, Ziagen, and Trizivir. ViiV was created in 2009 as a joint venture between GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer to take over their HIV operations. GlaxoSmithKline owns 85 percent of the company while Pfizer owns the remaining 15 percent.
Merck
In 2011, Merck reported revenue of 48 billion It is currently one of the world’s largest seven pharmaceutical companies by market capitalization and revenue. Some key products include Claritin, MiraLax, Zegrid, Coppertone, Dr. Scholl’s, and Lotrimin. Merck also manufactures the vaccine Gardasil. Friedrich Jacob Merck founded Merck in 1668 as a small drug store. It has since expanded, and Merck moved to New York in 1891.
Hoffman-LaRoche
In 2011, Hoffman LaRoche reported revenue of 43 billion U.S Dollars. Hoffman-LaRoche focuses primarily on HIV and cancer medication. Some of their key products include Tamiflu and Valium. Fritz Hoffmann-La Roche founded the company in 1896. At its start, the company mainly produced various vitamin preparations and derivatives. In 1934, it became the first company to mass-produce synthetic vitamin (which was branded as Redoxon). By the early 1990s, Roche Biomedical had one of the biggest clinical lab networks in the United States. Currently the Swiss firm Novartis owns a third of its shares.
Gilead Sciences
In 2010, Gilead Science reported revenue of approximately 8.4 billion dollars. They are an American biotechnology company that develops and sells pharmaceuticals. Currently the company is highly invested in drugs for HIV/AIDS as well as serious respiratory ailments, cardiovascular, and metabolic conditions. Some of their key products include Truvada and Atripla. Gilead was founded in 1987 and is based in California.
Abbott Labs
In 2011, Abbott reported revenue of 38.8 billion. It is currently a world leader in blood screening and immunoassay tests and diagnostics. A few of its major products include Valium, Tamiflu, and Ensure (meal replacement shakes). Abbott is an US company founded in 1888 (as Abbott Alkaloidal Company). They expanded their markets internationally in 1935 (to Canada) and in 1962 (to Japan). In 1985, Abbott developed the first HIV blood-screening test.
Chongqing Tonghe
In 2011, Chongqing Tonghe's revenue was estimated to be five-hundred thousand to a million dollars. The company mostly focuses on anti-malarial drugs. They were established in 1998 and are based in China.
Novartis
In 2012, Novartis reported revenue of 56 billion. The company mainly focuses on prescription medications and features key products such as Lamisil and Ritalin. In 1996, Novartis was created from the merger of Ciba-Geigy and Sandoz Laboratories. Both companies have long histories (Ciba Geigy came about from a merger in 1975 and Sandoz was founded in 1886). In 1998, Novartis made headlines with a biotechnology licensing agreement with University of California at Berkley. Currently the company has global headquarters in Basel, Switzerland and research headquarters in Cambridge, Massachusetts.
Eli Lilly
In 2010, Eli Lilly reported revenue of over 24 billion. Currently their products are sold in over 125 countries. Lilly was the first company to mass-produce penicillin, the Salk polio vaccine, insulin, methadone, and Prozac. Some of its key products include Cialis and Evista. Colonel Eli Lilly in Indianapolis founded the company in 1876. The company has continued to expand, building plants in three cities (Waluj, Roha, and Goa) all in India.
Bayer AG
In 2011, Bayer reported revenue of over 48 Billion dollars. Bayer focuses primarily on pharmaceutical, and veterinary products. Much of its profit comes from Aspirin. The company was founded in 1863 in Germany. In 1888, the company launched its pharmaceutical department. In 1897, Bayer was the first company to utilize the main ingredient found in Aspirin and began selling it worldwide. In 1940, Bayer launched the first multi-vitamin to be sold in the United States. In 1950, Bayer launched one of the first globally successful anti-malarials in Resochin. Bayer purchased Miles laboratories Inc. in 1978, and thus gained a major stake in the US pharmaceutical market. In 1989, Bayer bought Cooper Technicon to become one of the world’s largest suppliers of diagnostics systems and chemical reagents.
Kyorin
In 2012, Kyorin reported revenue of 11.8 billion dollars. It is primarily engaged in the manufacture and sale of prescription medicines. The company also emphasizes respiratory, urinary, and ear, nose, and throat drugs as well as synthetic antibacterial agents. Some of its key products include Mucodyne and Kipres. Kyorin Pharmaceutical is a Japanese company founded in 1923.


Company Report
Learn more about the companies and drugs.

 

Company Information

Daichii Sankyo’s drugs combine for a total impact score of 15,978.61. This entire score is attributable to its drugs for TB.

Daichii Sankyo receives credit for two TB treatments: Levofloxacin and ofloxacin. Levofloxacin is an essential drug for treating multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). All three regimens for MDR-TB include levofloxacin. Ofloxacin is also included in the treatment regimen for extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB).

Combining the impact of its two drugs, in 2010 Daichii Sankyo’s drugs averted 0.06% of the total DALYs we estimate would have been lost to TB in the absence of effective treatment. Its total impact score ranks Daichii Sankyo at the twelfth place in our index.

Sanofi’s drugs have a total impact score of 20,180,440.57. Of that score, 67.29%, or 13,579,865.04, comes from treating malaria and 32.71%, or 6,600,575.53, comes from treating TB.

Sanofi receives credit for two widely-used first-line treatments against malaria, artesunate + amodiaquine and artesunate + sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine. These two malaria drugs are responsible for averting the loss of 50.07% of the worldwide DALYs that we estimate would have been lost due to malaria in 2010 in the absence of effective treatment. With respect to malaria, Sanofi’s drugs together averted the loss of more DALYs than any other company’s drugs.

Sanofi also receives credit for two TB drugs, ethionamide and rifampicin. Ethionamide is especially important in treating multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) because it is included in all three MDR-TB treatment regimens. Rifampicin is also important because it is one of the drugs in the standard first-line regimen against TB. Sanofi’s TB drug portfolio helped to prevent 24.97% of the DALYs that we estimate would have been lost to TB in 2010. Sanofi’s drug portfolio placed it second in terms of total averted DALYs for TB.

Although Sanofi’s drugs do not top those of other companies in every aspect that we measured, their good performance in helping to alleviate the global burden of malaria and TB put Sanofi in first place in our index.

Shire Pharmaceuticals’ drugs have a total impact score of 7,382,869.52. This impact score comes exclusively from treating HIV/AIDS.

Shire’s lamivudine is the most-used first-line antiretroviral drug to treat HIV/AIDS. Lamivudine is included in 87.5% of first-line antiretroviral regimens for adults and 85.7% of first-line pediatric antiretroviral regimens. Lamivudine is particularly important for treating children in low- and middle-income countries outside of the Americas as part of a first-line regimen – 8 out of 9 treatments for children in these countries include lamivudine, which accounts for 98.5% of the treatment coverage. In 2010, lamivudine helped to avert the loss of the most HIV/AIDS-attributable DALYs: 31.17% of all the estimated DALYs that would have been lost to HIV/AIDS in 2010.

Although Shire Pharmaceuticals receives credit for lamivudine, its total impact score puts Shire Pharmaceuticals in fourth place in our index.

Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals’ drug, nevirapine, has a total impact score of 4,459,685.33. Nevirapine is used in many first-line antiretroviral regimens to treat HIV/AIDS.

Most of nevirapine’s score came from treating adults in low- and middle-income countries outside of the Americas. Combined with other drugs, nevirapine accounts for 59.7% of adult first-line treatment in these countries. In 2010, nevirapine helped to prevent the loss of 4,459,685.33 HIV/AIDS-related DALYs worldwide, which accounts for 18.83% of the loss averted through HIV/AIDS treatment. In terms of total loss of DALYs prevented, nevirapine ranks second among all other anti-HIV/AIDS drugs.

Overall, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals ranks sixth in our index.

Pfizer’s drugs have a total impact score of 13,209,904.58. Pfizer’s four anti-TB drugs averted more of the DALYs due to TB than any other company’s drugs and they prevented the loss of 49.97% of the DALYs that we estimate would have been lost to TB without treatment in 2010.

Pfizer’s ethambutol and pyrazinamide are two of the drugs in the first-line regimen against TB. Its cycloserine and 4-aminosalicylic acid are essential ingredients in treatment of multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). All three MDR-TB treatment regimens include cycloserine and 4-aminosalicylic acid.

Although Pfizer’s four anti-TB drugs have a greater global impact than all other anti-TB drugs, TB has a smaller impact on overall DALYs than HIV/AIDS and malaria. Thus Pfizer ranks third in our index.

Bristol-Myers Squibb drugs achieve a total impact score of 3,268,276.09. Of this score, 99.57%, or 3,254,227.49, comes from treating HIV/AIDS and 0.43%, or 14,048.60, from treating TB.

Bristol-Myers Squibb receives credit for two HIV/AIDS drugs, didanosine and stavudine. As a first-line treatment, didanosine is used only for children in low- and middle-income countries in the Americas while, as a second-line treatment, didanosine is used by adults in low- and middle-income countries outside of the Americas and by children in all low- and middle-income countries. Most of didanosine’s score came from its treatment for children in low- and middle-income countries outside of the Americas (as a second-line treatment). When combined with other drugs, didanosine is included in 39.60% of second-line treatment regimens for children in these countries. Most of the score of stavudine came from its use in first-line treatment for children in low- and middle-income countries outside of the Americas. In combinations with other drugs, stavudine is part of 56.4% of first-line treatment regimens for children in these countries.

Bristol-Myers Squibb also receives credit for two TB drugs, amikacin and kanamycin. Kanamycin is used to treat both multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB) and extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB) while amikacin is used only to treat XDR-TB. Most of kanamycin’s score came from its use in a treatment against MDR-TB. The treatment regimen kanamycin + levofloxacin + ethionamide + cycloserine + 4-aminosalicylic acid receives credit for 74% of the total impact of MDR-TB treatment; kanamycin receives 1/5 of the impact of this treatment regimen.

Bristol-Myers Squibb’s HIV/AIDS drugs helped to prevent the loss of 13.74% of the total global HIV/AIDS-related DALYs burden that we estimate would have been lost in 2010 in the absence of effective treatment. Its TB drugs helped to avert the loss of 0.05% of the total TB-related DALYs. Combining its TB and HIV/AIDS scores, Bristol-Myers Squibb ranks seventh in our index.

Viiv Healthcare’s drugs achieve a total impact score of 3,178,652.73.

Viiv Healthcare receives credit for three drugs for HIV/AIDS: abacavir, zidovudine and nelfinavir. Most of abacavir’s score came from treating children in low- and middle-income countries outside of the Americas as a second-line treatment. Abacavir is included in 42.6% of second-line treatment regimens for children in low- and middle-income countries outside of the Americas. Zidovudine is an important drug for first-line treatment of children in low- and middle-income countries in the Americas. All six first-line treatments in these countries include zidovudine. In addition, zidovudine is especially effective when combined with lamivudine and efavirenz to treat HIV/AIDS in adults in low- and middle-income countries in the Americas. Their estimated combined effectiveness is 82.00%, which tops all other first-line regimens for adults in these countries. Lastly, nelfinavir is used as a regimen in both first-line and second-line treatments of children in low- and middle-income countries in the Americas. All of nelfinavir’s score came from the treatments for children in these countries.

Combining the impact scores of its three drugs, Viiv Healthcare’s drugs helped to avert the loss of 3,178,652.73 DALYs due to HIV/AIDS, 13.42% of the total HIV/AIDS DALYs alleviated in the world in 2010. Viiv Healthcare ranks eighth in our index.

Merck’s drug portfolio has a total impact score of 3,064,466.96. Of its score, 99.90%, or 3,061,495.58, comes from its drugs for HIV/AIDS and 0.10%, or 2,971.38, comes from its drugs for TB.

Merck’s sole antiretroviral drug for HIV/AIDS, efavirenz, accounts for most of its score. Efavirenz serves as a key drug in both first-line and second-line treatments for HIV/AIDS. Efavirenz receives most of its score from its inclusion in first-line treatment regimens for adults in low- and middle-income countries in the Americas. Efavirenz is included in 53.1% of first-line treatment regimens for adults in these countries. Efavirenz is especially effective when combined with zidovudine and lamivudine.

Merck’s TB drug, streptomycin, is used in regimens to treat multidrug-resistant TB (MDR-TB). Streptomycin is included in two out of three treatment regimens against MDR-TB.

With its two drugs, Merck helped to avert 12.93% of total DALYs alleviated by any company’s drugs for HIV/AIDS and 0.011% of total for TB. Combing the total impact of both drugs, we rank Merck ninth in our index.

Hoffman-LaRoche’s sole TB drug has a total impact score of 6,587,721.05. Isoniazid serves as one of four drugs in the standard first-line regimen for drug-susceptible TB. Among all TB drugs, isoniazid performs third best in preventing the loss of DALYs globally. It alone averted the loss of 6,587,721.05 DALYs — 24.92% of the total DALYs that would have been lost to TB in 2010 without treatment.

Hoffman-LaRoche ranks fifth in our index.

Gilead Sciences drugs have a total impact score of 1,989,941.39. All of its score comes from its drugs for HIV/AIDS. Gilead Sciences receives credit for two drugs for HIV/AIDS: emtricitabine and tenofovir. Emtricitabine serves as a key drug in treating adults in low and middle income countries. Most of emtricitabine’s score came from its inclusion in second-line treatment regimens for adults in low and middle income countries outside of the Americas. Emtricitabine is included in 10.70% of second-line treatment regimens for adults in these countries.

Gilead Science’s second drug for HIV/AIDS is tenofovir, which is included in regimens for adults in low and middle income countries. Tenofoviris also part of a second-line regimen to treat children in low and middle income countries outside of the Americas, though this treatment regimen only accounts for 2% of second-line treatments for children in these countries. Most of tenofovir’s score came from treating adults in low and middle income countries in the Americas as a second-line regimen. Tenofoviris included in 6 out of 10 second-line treatments against HIV/AIDS for adults in these countries. Combined with other drugs, Tenofoviris is part of 54.2% of second-line treatment regimens for adults in low and middle income countries in the Americas.

Combining the impact of its two drugs, Gilead Science’s drugs account for 8.40% of the total DALYs alleviated that would have been lost to HIV/AIDS in the world of 2010. Its total impact score puts Gilead Sciences in tenth place in our index.

Abbott Laboratories’ drugs have a total impact score of 335,233.33. This score comes solely from its HIV/AIDS portfolio.

Abbott Laboratories receives credit for lopinavir with a ritonavir boost and half of the credit for atazanavir/ritonavir (with Novartis). Lopinavir with a ritonavir boost is included in regimens for treating adults and children in low- and middle-income countries. Most of lopinavir with a ritonavir boost’s score came from its inclusion in second-line treatment for adults in low- and middle-income countries outside of the Americas. All second-line treatments of adults in these countries include lopinavir with a ritonavir boost. lopinavir with a ritonavir boost is most effective when combined with tenofovir and lamivudine. Atazanavir/ritonavir is used only to treat adults in low and middle income countries in the Americas. Most of atazanavir/ritonavir’s score came from treating these adults as a second-line regimen. Atazanavir/ritonavir is included in 14.80% of second-line treatments for adults in these countries. .

Combining the impact of its two drugs, Abbott Laboratories accounted for 1.42% of total DALYs averted that would have been lost to HIV/AIDS without treatment in 2010. The total impact score of Abbott Laboratories’ drugs ranks it eleventh in our index.

Chongqing Tonghe Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. has a drug portfolio with a total impact score of 6,730.11. This score comes entirely from its antimalarial drugs.

Chongqing Tonghe receives credit for dihydroarteminisin-piperaquine, which serves as a first-line treatment against malaria. Most of dihydroarteminisin-piperaquine’s score came from its average treatment efficacy, which ranks second (97.50%) among all malaria drugs. Additionally, dihydroarteminisin-piperaquine is used as a first-line antimalarial drug in five countries.

In 2010, Chongqing Tonghe’s dihydroarteminisin-piperaquine helped to prevent the loss of 0.02% of the total malaria-attributable DALYs. Chongqing Tonghe Pharmaceutical Co. Ltd. comes in thirteenth place in our index.

Novartis’ drugs have a total impact score of 13,555,410.12. Of that score, 99.85%, or 13,534,956.85, results from treating malaria and 0.15%, or 20,453.27, is attributable to its antiretroviral treatments for HIV/AIDS.

Novartis’s antimalarial drug, artemether-lumefantrine, performs second best in almost every aspect among all antimalarial treatments. It averts the loss of 49.90% of the worldwide DALYs that we estimate would have been lost due to malaria in 2010, in the absence of effective treatment. It is also the most used antimalarial drug worldwide.

104 countries specify a first-line treatment for Falciparum malaria. Of these, 53 recommend artemether-lumefantrine as either the sole drug or as one amongst a few recommended treatments. Moreover, artemether-lumefantrine ranks as the second most effective antimalarial drug, with an average efficacy of 98.10%.

Novartis also shares credit (with Abbott) for an HIV/AIDS drug, atazanavir/ritonavir, which averts the loss of 0.09% of the total HIV/AIDS-related DALYs. Due to the impressive performance of artemether-lumefantrine, Novartis ranks second in our index.

Eli Lilly’s drugs achieve a total impact score of 2,082.75. Its score comes solely from a single drug for TB. Eli Lilly’s TB drug, capreomycin, serves to treat extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). It helps to alleviate 0.008% of the total DALYs that we estimate would have been lost to TB without treatment in 2010. Eli Lilly is ranked fourteenth in our index.

Bayer Healthcare’s drugs have a total impact score of 1,562.06. Its entire score comes from its drugs for TB. Bayer Healthcare’s TB drug, moxifloxacin, is part of the treatment regimen for extensively-drug resistant TB (XDR-TB). In 2010, moxifloxacin helped to alleviate 0.006% of the total DALYs that would have been lost to TB without treatment in 2010. Its total impact score ties Bayer Healthcare with Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. at the fifteenth place in our index.

Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. has a drug portfolio with a total impact score of 1,562.06. Its entire score comes from a single drug for TB. Kyorin’s TB drug, gatifloxacin is part of the treatment regimen for extensively drug-resistant TB (XDR-TB). In 2010, gatifloxacin helped to alleviate 0.006% of the total DALYs that would have been lost to TB without treatment in 2010. Its total impact score ties Kyorin Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. with Bayer Healthcare at fifteenth in our index.

Key Drugs

Artemether Lumefantrine (AL) is a fixed combination therapy of artemisinin and lumefantrine and is mainly used in the treatment in Malaria. AL is one of the most common first line combination therapies for malaria globally. This is largely because of its high cure rates against drug-resistant malaria. Side effects such as headaches, anorexia, and sleep disorders have been associated with AL. AL was patented by the Indian company Ranbaxy Laboratories in 2009, which was bought by Daiichi Sankyo in 2008.

Levofloxacin is used to treat tuberculosis and other bacterial pathogens responsible for respiratory, gastrointestinal, urinary tract, and abdominal infections. In 2011, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) added two black box warnings for this drug because of its relation to tendon ruptures, muscle weakness and breathing problems. However, Levofloxacin is about twice as potent as ofloxacin against mycobacterium tuberculosis. The FDA approved the drug on December 20th, 1996.

Ofloxacin is a flurorquinolone synthetic antibiotic. It is used in combination with other drugs as treatment for multi-drug-resistant TB. Daiichi first patented the drug in 1980. Daiichi has since merged with Sankyo to form Daiichi Sankyo
Artesunate/Amodiaquine is an artemisinin-based combination therapy (ACT) used to treat acute uncomplicated plasmodium falciparum malaria. This anti-malarial combination treatment was launched in 2007 by the Drugs for Neglected Disease Initiative in partnership with Sanofi-Aventis.

Artesunate + Sulfadoxine-Pyrimethamine is another artemisin-based combination therapy for the treatment of malaria. Sanofi acquired the patent once it bought Hoechst AG which held the original patent.

Rifampicin is an antibiotic that is used in the treatment of tuberculosis along with drugs such as pyranizamide, isoniazid, and ethambutol. The earliest patent for rifampicin was filed in 1965 by Gruppo Lepetit (now a subsidiary of Sanofi).
Lamivudine is often used in combination with AZT as an effective treatment against HIV. AF Biochem first patented lamivudine, which subsequently changed its name to Biochem Pharma, and later merged, with Shire Pharmaceuticals in 2000.
Nevirapine is a non-nucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor used to treat both HIV-1 infection (the most common strain of the virus) and AIDS. It is marketed as Viramune, and is often used in combination therapies of three or more antivirals. Boehringer Ingelheim was the first company to patent this drug and it was approved in 1996 for adults and in 1998 for children. In 2000, it received a black box warning from the FDA because it poses a risk of liver toxicity.
Cycloserine is an antibiotic used against mycobacterium tuberculosis. It is classified as a second line drug and is used in combination therapies for MDR- and XDR-TB. It is known to cause many side effects including headache, dizziness, anxiety, confusion, irritability, tingling, speech difficulties, fainting, drowsiness, tremor, psychosis and depression.

Ethambutol is a bacteriostatic anti-mycobacterial drug used to treat tuberculosis. It is usually given in combination with other tuberculosis drugs like isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide. The earliest patent for ethambutol held by the American Cyanamid Company was issued in 1976. American then became a subsidiary of American Home Products Corp. In 1995, American Home Products eventually changed its name to Wyeth and Pfizer subsequently acquired Wyeth.

Pyrazinamide is used to treat tuberculosis. The drug is largely used to slow down the growth of bacteria, but it can be used to kill actively replicating tuberculosis bacteria. It is only used in combination with other drugs like isoniazid and rifampicin in the treatment of mycobacterium tuberculosis. The most common side effects are severe joint pains. The earliest patent for pyrazinamide was granted in 1954 (filed in 1952) by the American Cyanamid Company, which merged with American Home Products in 1994 and subsequently changed its name to the Wyeth Corporation. Wyeth merged with Pfizer in 2009.
Didanosine is an antiretroviral drug (reverse transciptase inhibitor) used as a treatment for HIV. The drug and its effectiveness as an HIV treatment were discovered by The National Cancer Institute (NCI). Since NCI does not market products, they awarded the license to Bristol Myers Squibb. Didanosine was the second HIV treatment drug to be awarded approval by the FDA in 1991.

Stavudine is an antiretroviral (nucleoside analog reverse transcriptase inhibitor) used in the treatment of HIV. It was discovered in the 1960’s and was subsequently found to be effective in treating HIV. The FDA approved the drug in 1994 and it is currently manufactured under the trade name Zerit.

Kanamycin is an antibiotic (aminoglycoside bactericidal) that is used in treatment of MDR-TB as well as a wide variety of infections. Additionally, the drug is often used for research, particularly, in molecular biology as a selective agent most commonly to isolate bacteria.

Amikacin is used in combination therapy to treat MDR-TB. It is also commonly used to treat major, infections from drug-resistant bacteria. The patent for Amikacin was issued to Brstol Myers Squibb in 1973.
Neflinivar is an antiretroviral that is used in the treatment of HIV. The Agouron Institute first developed Nelfinavir. Agouron was then sold to Warner Lambert in 1998, which subsequently merged with Pfizer. ViiV was created in 2009 as a joint venture between GlaxoSmithKline and Pfizer to take over their HIV operations and thus holds the patent for Neflinivar.

Abacavir is an antiretroviral drug used to treat HIV and AIDS. The drug is never taken alone for threat of serious adverse effects (hypersensitivity and anaphylaxis). The first patent for Abacavir was by The Wellcome Foundation Limited. The Wellcome Foundation Limited then merged with Glaxo in 1995 to form Glaxo Wellcome.

Zidovudine is an antiviral drug used to treat HIV and AIDS. It was the first U.S government approved treatment for HIV therapy and is also used to prevent HIV transmission. It is often administered in combination therapy specifically in highly active antiretroviral therapy (HAART) where AZT is combined with other drugs to prevent AZT-resistant.
Efavirenz is used as a part of highly active antiretroviral therapy to treat HIV type 1 (as a non-nucleoside reverse transciptase inhibitor). It is also used as a regimen to reduce the likelihood of HIV infection in people who are exposed to significant risk. Merck first patented the drug in 1996.

Streptomycin is an antibiotic, antimycobacterial drug (classified as an aminoglycosides). It was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. It is only administered through injections and is used in combination with other anti-TB drugs.
Isoniazid is an organic compound used as first line medication in prevention and treatment of tuberculosis. It is a relatively inexpensive medication. The earliest patent for Isoniazid is by Hoffman La Roche in 1952.
Emtricitabine is a nucleotide reverse transcript inhibitor that is used as a treatment for HIV. Emtricitabine was first developed by scientists at Emory University. Gilead subsequently paid $525 million for the royalties due to Emory for the drug.

Tenofovir is an antiretroviral drug used in treatment of HIV. The drug was approved by the FDA in 2006 and is often used with emtricitabine and efivarenz. Tenofovir was patented by Gilead Sciences, Inc. in 1998 (filed in 1996).
Lopinavir is an antiretroviral used to treat HIV/AIDS and hepatitis C. It is often used with ritonavir in a combination treatment for HIV (approved by the FDA in 2000). Some common side effects of Lopinavir and Ritonavir include nausea, irregular heartbeat, and tiredness. Lopinivar/Ritonavir was produced as an upgrade for Ritonavir. The FDA approved Lopinavir in 2000, and the patent for the drug will expire in 2016.

Atazanavir/Ritonavir is another antiretroviral that is used in the treatment of HIV. When atazanavir is used with ritonavir this drug combination is as potent as Lopinavir. The earliest patent for atazanavir was by Novartis in 1995.
Dihydroarteminisin-Piperaquine is a drug used to treat malaria. A patent for dihydroartemisinin-piperaquine for use in treatment of ,alaria was first applied for by Chongqing Tonghe in 2000 (US Patent issued 2010). It is sold commercially in combination and has been shown to be equivalent to artemether/lumefantrine in some trials but generally has fewer adverse side effects and is administered once a day for three days instead of twice a day. This all makes the drug more patient-friendly than other artemisinin combination therapies (ACTs). Until recently, the public sector has had no access to the drug as it had not been approved and hence could not be procured using international donor funds. Approval by the European Medicines Agency (EMA) is now set to change this.
Atazanavir/Ritonavir is an antiretroviral drug used in HIV/AIDS treatment. It is used to replace lopinavir/ritonavir treatment (it generally has less gastrointestinal toxicity). Abbott Laboratories first patented Ritonavir in 1993 and Novartis issued a patent for atazanavir in 1995 (to Ciba-Geigy, at the time).
Capreomycin is used in treating lung infections caused by certain strains of tuberculosis. It is a peptide antibiotic, which is given in combination with other antibiotics for multi-drug resistant TB. Capreomycin is a polypeptide antibiotic derived from Streptomyces capreolus originally isolated by Eli Lilly & Co. in 1961.
Moxifloxacin is used to treat tuberculosis. Additionally, it is used for several types of infections including respiratory, cellulitis, anthrax, and meningitis. It is sold as eye drops under the brand names Vigamox and Moxeza to treat pink eye. The drug was approved in 1999 for use in the United States.
Gatifloxacin is a fluoroquinolone antibiotic. Previously, Bristol-Myers Squibb produced this product under the name Tequin for the treatment of respiratory tract infections. Due to its adverse side effects Gatifloxacin is currently only available in the United States and Canada as an ophthalmic solution (eye drops).


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This report explains the score break-down for each company.